Les causes de nullité d'une rupture conventionnelle

Depuis son introduction en 2008, la rupture conventionnelle a connu un franc succès, mais un succès encadré. En effet, la validité d'une rupture conventionnelle suppose le respect d'un certain nombre de conditions, telles que :

  1. L'existence d'une convention de rupture écrite;
  2. Le consentement éclairé des parties;
  3. Une période de rétractation de 15 jours calendaires;
  4. L'homologation de la convention de rupture par l'administration;
  5. Le versement d'une indemnité qui ne peut être inférieure à l'indemnité légale ou conventionnelle de licenciement selon la formule la plus avantageuse pour le salarié;
  6. Une date de rupture du contrat effective au plus tôt le lendemain de l'homologation de la convention de rupture par l'administration.

Petit à petit, par sa jurisprudence, la Cour de cassation a précisé les conséquences du non-respect de ces conditions ainsi que le rôle du juge dans ce cadre.


La Cour de cassation avait ainsi déjà relevé un certain nombre de cas dans lesquels la convention de rupture devait être jugée nulle, par exemple :

  • si la convention est signée dans une situation de violence morale ou de harcèlement (Cass. Soc. 20 janvier 2013, n°11-22.332);
  • si la convention est signée sous la menace ou des pressions (Cass. Soc. 23 mai 2013, n°12-13.865);
  • si le salarié n'a pas reçu son exemplaire de la convention de rupture (Cass. Soc. 6 février 2014, n°11-27.000);
  • ou encore en présence d'un vice du consentement (Cass. Soc. 29 janvier 2014, n°12-27.594).

Par un nouvel arrêt du 8 juillet 2015, la Cour de cassation a adopté une position surprenante dans une affaire où la convention de rupture mentionnait une indemnité de rupture inférieure à l'indemnité légale de licenciement, et prévoyait une date de rupture effective antérieure à la date d'homologation par l'administration.


La Cour de cassation a jugé qu'il s'agissait "d'erreurs communes", de sorte qu'elle ne constituaient pas des causes de nullité autonomes de la convention de rupture. Elle précisait dès lors, que le juge devait simplement rectifier la date de rupture, et condamner l'employeur à verser au salarié le complément de l'indemnité de rupture manquant.


Mais en elles-mêmes, ces deux irrégularités "communes" ne sont pas des causes de nullité, sauf à prouver qu'elles sont la manifestation d'un vice du consentement.


Cour de Cassation - Chambre Sociale - 8 juillet 2015 - 14-10.139

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  • #22

    [url=http://ruptureconventionnellecdi.fr]Rupture conventionnelle[/url] (samedi, 10 mars 2018 13:00)

    On peut comprendre que l'erreur sur le montant de l'indemnité de rupture conventionnelle soit simplement à rectifier, comme l'a décidé la Cour de cassation. L'erreur sur la date de rupture est quelque peu plus étonnante, mais la Cour de cassation a rappelé que la date indiquée est seulement "envisagée" d'après ce qui figure sur le formulaire CERFA.
    Le cumul des deux erreurs fait cependant beaucoup, je vous l'accorde.

  • #23

    Rupture conventionnelle du CDI (samedi, 07 avril 2018 23:11)

    De toute façon, la Cour de cassation a toujours raison, puisque c'est elle qui interprète la loi.
    Bien cordialement.
    <a href="http://ruptureconventionnellecdi.fr/">Rupture conventionnelle du CDI</a>